Fire & Smoke Modelling to validate fire and life safety acceptance criteria in tunnels
As tunnels can be a complex interconnected network in underground or enclosed spaces, fire situations in the tunnels will pose highly hazardous conditions to the passengers in terms fire safety and life safety.
As such, smoke ventilation and fire engineering analysis are critical to demonstrate that all fire and life safety acceptance criteria in the tunnels can be met. Holistic fire safety engineering approaches involving extensive smoke and fire modelling are commonly adopted to validate the effectiveness of the emergency tunnel ventilation during fire situations in accordance with relevant standards such as NFPA 502 as well as any applicable AHJ’s requirements.
Multi-purpose tunnel ventilation systems in road tunnels can be designed for :
- Dilution of air pollutants inside tunnel,
- Environmental issues outside tunnel and
- Emergency smoke ventilation system to meet fire and life safety objectives.
The volume of air required for the dilution of pollutants as well as other factors, such as tunnel length, location, type of traffic, environmental laws, and not least, fire and life safety criteria during a fire situation, shall be taken into consideration when designing a ventilation system for a particular tunnel.